Endometriosis – Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment

Endometriosis is a chronic condition. It occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus, known as endometrial tissue, grows outside the uterus. This misplaced tissue can cause various symptoms and significantly impact a woman’s quality of life. In this article, we will explore the causes, symptoms, and treatment options available for endometriosis. However, it is important to consult an endometriosis doctor in South Delhi timely to prevent the worsening of the condition.


What Are the Causes of Endometriosis?

The exact cause of endometriosis remains unknown, but several factors believed to contribute to the condition are:

Retrograde menstruation: Backflow of menstrual blood through the fallopian tubes into the pelvic cavity, allowing endometrial cells to implant and grow.

Hormonal imbalance: Estrogen, a hormone that stimulates the growth of the endometrium, may promote the development of endometriosis.

Immune system dysfunction: Issues with the immune system may prevent the body from recognizing and eliminating misplaced endometrial tissue.

Genetic factors: Endometriosis appears to run in families, suggesting a genetic predisposition to the condition.

Surgical scar implantation: Endometrial cells may attach to surgical incisions, such as those from a Cesarean section or hysterectomy, and grow outside the uterus.


What Are the Symptoms of Endometriosis?

The symptoms of endometriosis can vary in severity and presentation, and some women may experience no symptoms at all. However, the most common signs include:

Pelvic pain: This is the primary symptom, ranging from mild discomfort to debilitating pain during menstruation, intercourse, or throughout the menstrual cycle.

Dysmenorrhea: Severe menstrual cramps that may cause nausea, vomiting, or fainting.

Chronic pelvic pain: Persistent pain in the lower back and pelvis.

Painful intercourse: Known as dyspareunia, it can occur during or after sexual activity.

Irregular bleeding: Heavy or irregular menstrual periods.

Infertility: Difficulty in conceiving or carrying a pregnancy to term.


What Are the Treatment Options for Endometriosis?

Endometriosis has no cure. However, several treatment options for managing the symptoms and improving quality of life are:

Pain medication: Over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can help relieve pain and reduce inflammation.

Hormonal therapy: Birth control pills, hormonal patches, or intrauterine devices containing progestin or a combination of estrogen and progestin can help regulate hormone levels and reduce symptoms.

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists: These medications temporarily suppress estrogen production, inducing a menopause-like state and reducing endometrial growth.

Laparoscopic surgery: A minimally invasive surgical procedure to remove endometrial implants and scar tissue, improving pain symptoms and fertility in some cases.

Hysterectomy: In severe cases where other treatments have failed, the removal of the uterus and sometimes the ovaries may be considered.



Endometriosis is a complex condition that requires a multidisciplinary approach for diagnosis and management. Early recognition of symptoms and timely intervention can help alleviate pain, preserve fertility, and improve the overall quality of life for women.

If you suspect you may have endometriosis, consult Dr. Ruchi Tandon, the best gynecologist in South Delhi.