What Are the Common Causes of Female Infertility?

What Are the Common Causes of Female Infertility?

The journey to parenthood can be an exciting time, filled with anticipation and hope. But for some couples, this path can be unexpectedly challenging due to infertility. Infertility can affect both men and women and one should consult an infertility specialist in Greater Kailash. This blog will focus on the common causes of female infertility.

Understanding the Common Causes of Female Infertility

Knowing these factors can empower women on their path to conception. It’s important to remember that infertility is a medical condition, and there are often treatment options available.

Ovulation Issues

Ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovary, is a crucial step in conception. If ovulation doesn’t happen regularly or at all, it can significantly hinder getting pregnant.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

This hormonal imbalance is a leading cause of female infertility. PCOS can cause irregular periods, anovulation (absence of ovulation), and problems with egg quality. Such issues must be consulted with a gynecologist doctor in South Delhi.

Hormonal Imbalances

Other hormone imbalances, such as those related to the thyroid gland or excessive prolactin production, can disrupt ovulation and make pregnancy difficult.

Age-Related Decline

As women age, their fertility naturally declines. With that, the quality and quantity of eggs also decrease.

Beyond Ovulation: Factors Affecting the Reproductive System

While ovulation is essential, a healthy reproductive system is necessary for a successful pregnancy. Here are some conditions that can affect a woman’s ability to conceive:

Fallopian Tube Blockage

Blockages in the fallopian tubes, often caused by pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or past surgery, can prevent sperm from reaching the egg or hinder the fertilized egg’s journey to the uterus. An experienced infertility specialist in Greater Kailash can identify the right cause after a thorough examination.

Uterine Fibroids

These non-cancerous growths in the uterus can interfere with implantation, the process where the fertilized egg attaches to the uterine lining.


This condition occurs when endometrial tissue, normally lining the uterus, grows outside of it. Endometriosis can cause inflammation and pelvic pain while affecting fertility.

Lifestyle Choices and Environmental Factors

Certain lifestyle choices and environmental factors can also play a role in female infertility:

Weight Extremes

Both obesity and being underweight can disrupt ovulation and hormone regulation.


Smoking reduces blood flow to the ovaries and uterus, impacting egg health and implantation.

Heavy Alcohol Consumption and Drug Use

Excessive alcohol and recreational drugs can negatively affect fertility in several ways, including hormonal imbalances and egg quality.

Remember, You’re Not Alone

If you’re struggling to conceive, it’s important to seek professional medical advice. A gynecologist doctor in South Delhi can help diagnose the underlying cause of infertility and recommend appropriate treatment options. There are many success stories of women overcoming infertility challenges. Sharing your concerns with your partner and seeking support groups can also be invaluable during this journey.

By understanding the common causes of female infertility and taking a proactive approach, couples can increase their chances of achieving a healthy pregnancy.

What is The Role of Nutrition in Fertility?

What is The Role of Nutrition in Fertility?

For couples embarking on the journey to parenthood, the significance of nutrition in fertility cannot be overstated. The delicate interplay between diet and reproductive health plays a pivotal role in optimizing the chances of conception. This guide by an experienced infertility specialist in Greater Kailash will explore the key aspects of how nutrition influences fertility and what couples can do to support their reproductive well-being.

Fertility and Nutrition – An Important Combination

Balanced Diet for Hormonal Harmony

A well-balanced diet is the cornerstone of hormonal balance, a crucial factor in fertility. Essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants play a vital role in regulating hormonal levels, ensuring optimal function of the reproductive system. For instance, adequate intake of vitamin D has been linked to improved fertility in both men and women, promoting healthy egg and sperm development.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Reproductive Health

Omega-3 fatty acids, commonly found in fatty fish, flaxseeds, and walnuts, contribute to the health of reproductive organs. These essential fats support the formation of cell membranes and play a role in hormone production. Research suggests that a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids may enhance fertility by improving egg quality and promoting a conducive environment for implantation. Consult a good gynecologist in South Delhi to know what you should include in your diet.

Antioxidants: Guardians of Reproductive Cells

The journey to conception is marked by the constant threat of oxidative stress, which can damage reproductive cells. Antioxidants act as vigilant guardians, neutralizing free radicals and protecting both sperm and eggs from oxidative damage. Fruits and vegetables, particularly those rich in vitamins C and E, are excellent sources of antioxidants, offering a natural defense mechanism against oxidative stress.

Maintaining a Healthy Weight

Weight management is a critical aspect of fertility. Both obesity and being underweight can disrupt hormonal balance, leading to irregular menstrual cycles and decreased fertility. Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight through a balanced diet and regular exercise can significantly improve reproductive outcomes.

The Impact of Lifestyle Choices

Beyond diet, lifestyle choices play a pivotal role in fertility. Limiting alcohol intake and avoiding tobacco and recreational drugs can positively influence fertility in both men and women. Caffeine consumption should also be moderated, as excessive intake has been associated with fertility issues. An experienced infertility specialist in Greater Kailash will guide you better about the positives and negatives of certain foods.

Supplements as Fertility Aids

In certain cases, supplements can serve as valuable fertility aids. Folic acid, for example, is essential for preventing neural tube defects in the developing fetus. Additionally, fertility-specific supplements containing a combination of vitamins and minerals may be recommended for couples undergoing fertility treatments.

Get the right guidance and best treatment for fertility issues by Dr. Ruchi Tandon, a good gynecologist in South Delhi.

Uterine Fibroids – An Educational Guide

Uterine Fibroids - An Educational Guide

Fibroids are the growth of the uterus and they are also known as Uterine Leiomyomas or Myomas. The uterus is made of muscle and the growth of fibroids happens from the muscle. Although Fibroids never cause cancer, and cannot become cancerous, they should be treated on time if you are the one have doubts about the same then, immediately contact an Infertility Specialist in Greater Kailash and get the treatment done as soon as possible.

Fibroids are common and almost 80% of women have this problem but everyone has bothersome symptoms. Treatments are available for fibroid-related issues such as pain or pressure in the pelvis, heavy bleeding while menstrual, or even infertility, or pregnancy issues.

Symptoms of Fibroids: You should know?

There are a few signs and symptoms that indicate you need instant treatment and those are:

  • Bleeding between periods
  • Painful and heavy menstrual periods can cause anemia or disrupt the normal activities of a woman
  • Uncertainty if the growth is fibroid or something other, like an ovarian tumor
  • Infertility and Pelvic pain
  • Rapid increase in fibroid growth

Symptoms of Fibroids: Noticeable

  • Menstruation Changes
  • Menstrual Pain (cramping)
  • Longer, heavy menstrual periods, or more frequent
  • Anemia
  • Vaginal bleeding at times apart from menstruation


  • Difficulty while urinating or frequent urination
  • Abdominal Cramping
  • Constipation, difficult bowel movements, and rectal pain


  • Lower back or abdomen pain
  • While having sex
  • Infertility
  • Enlarged abdomen and uterus
  • Miscarriage

Sometimes Fibroids don’t cause any symptoms at all but they may be found while a routine check-up of pelvic or any other tests for other related issues. You should visit the Pregnancy Doctor in South Delhi to know about your vaginal problem if you have any.

Treatment of Fibroids: Is it necessary?

Drug therapy is the option when someone has fibroids. Medications might lessen the painful periods and heavy bleeding which causes sometimes because by fibroids. They might not prevent fibroid growth, and hence, surgery is required later. Drug treatment for fibroids includes a few following options:

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists- These medications stop the menstrual cycle and also can shrink the fibroids. What’s more, they sometimes are used before surgery to lessen the bleeding risk.

Birth control pills and other kinds of hormonal birth control methods, these drugs are basically used for controlling painful periods with cramping and heavy bleeding as well.

Progestin- Releasing IUD, intrauterine device- This option is great for women with fibroids that don’t deform the inside part of the uterus. It lessens heavy and painful bleeding but that doesn’t treat the fibroids themselves.

As GnRH agonists have multiple side effects, they are ideal to be used for very short periods. When a woman stops taking this medicine, her fibroids commonly return to their previous size.

To stay prevent from Fibroids, you should maintain a healthy weight or have to lose weight if you are overweight. Always go with fiber-enriched foods and never smoke. You can visit Abortion Clinic in South Delhi if you have doubts about having any vaginal issues.

Myths About Infertility – An Expert Guide

Myths About Infertility - An Expert Guide

Infertility is a topic surrounded by misconceptions and myths that often perpetuate societal stigma and misunderstanding. It’s important to separate fact from fiction to better support individuals and couples facing fertility challenges. Let’s see some of the most common myths surrounding infertility. To check, you can consult an experienced infertility specialist in Greater Kailash.

Debunking Infertility Myths

Myth: Infertility is always a woman’s problem

Fact: Infertility affects both men and women equally. Approximately 40% of infertility cases are due to male factors, 40% are due to female factors, and the remaining 20% are a combination of both or unexplained.

Infertility can result from issues such as low sperm count or motility in men and conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or endometriosis in women. Addressing fertility challenges often involves both partners seeking medical help. Here, seeking the guidance of a good gynecologist in South Delhi is crucial.

Myth: Infertility is a rare issue

Fact: Infertility is more common than you might think. According to the World Health Organization, infertility affects about 15% of couples worldwide. It’s a prevalent issue that impacts many individuals and families, regardless of their age, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status.

Factors contributing to infertility include age, lifestyle choices, underlying medical conditions, and environmental factors. It’s essential to recognize the widespread nature of infertility to promote open discussions and offer appropriate support.

Myth: Stress causes infertility

Fact: While stress can affect overall well-being, there is no conclusive evidence that it directly causes infertility. While managing stress is essential for overall health, infertility is a medical condition often linked to physiological issues within the body.

Seeking professional help from an infertility specialist in Greater Kailash for infertility concerns is crucial. Medical experts can diagnose the underlying causes and recommend appropriate treatments, which may include lifestyle changes to reduce stress.

Myth: Infertility is untreatable

Fact: Advances in medical science have led to various effective infertility treatments. These treatments include assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), and hormone therapies. Depending on the cause of infertility, couples have multiple options to improve their chances of conceiving.

It’s important for individuals and couples struggling with infertility to consult gynecologist in South Delhi who can develop personalized treatment plans based on their unique circumstances.

Myth: Only older women face infertility issues

Fact: While age can certainly impact fertility, infertility can affect individuals of all ages, including younger adults. Various factors, such as medical conditions, lifestyle choices, and environmental factors, can influence fertility regardless of age.

Early intervention and seeking medical help when facing fertility challenges can make a significant difference in achieving a successful pregnancy.

Dr. Ruchi Tandon is an experienced infertility specialist in Greater Kailash who can help you with sensitive issues and provide a tailored treatment plan.

What Do You Need to Know About Unexplained Infertility?

What Do You Need to Know About Unexplained Infertility?

The journey towards parenthood is often regarded as a joyous and transformative experience. However, for some couples, the path to conceiving a child can be unexpectedly challenging, leading them to the perplexing realm of unexplained infertility. Unexplained infertility is a term used to describe cases where couples face difficulties in conceiving without any apparent medical explanation.

This mysterious phenomenon poses emotional, psychological, and medical challenges that warrant a closer look. However, in such cases, it is always better to consult an infertility specialist in Greater Kailash.

Unexplained Infertility – An Overview

Unexplained infertility is frustrating and confusing. It is typically given when a couple has been actively trying to conceive for at least a year without success, yet all standard fertility tests for both partners come back normal. These tests include assessments of ovulation, sperm quality, fallopian tube function, and uterine health. In such cases, the inability to pinpoint an identifiable cause can leave couples in a state of bewilderment.

What Could be the Causes of Unexplained Infertility?

While the exact causes of unexplained infertility remain elusive, several factors could contribute to this phenomenon:

Subtle Hormonal Imbalances: Hormones play a crucial role in regulating the reproductive system. Even minor imbalances might disrupt the delicate dance required for conception.

Egg and Sperm Quality: While standard tests may appear normal, there could still be subtle issues with egg and sperm quality that evade detection.

Genetic Factors: Genetic predispositions might influence fertility, but these complexities are not fully understood.

Immune System: An overactive immune response might hinder conception, as the body could view a fertilized embryo as a foreign invader.

Lifestyle and Stress: Factors such as diet, exercise, and stress can impact fertility. Though seemingly unrelated, these elements could collectively affect a couple’s ability to conceive. Consulting a gynecologist in Greater Kailash can help you provide both medical and emotional support.

Coping with the Emotional Toll

The emotional toll of unexplained infertility can be immense. The frustration, disappointment, and uncertainty can strain relationships and lead to anxiety and depression. The absence of a clear diagnosis can make couples feel isolated and misunderstood. Seeking support through counseling, infertility support groups, and open communication with loved ones can alleviate some of these emotional burdens.

What Are the Treatment Options for Unexplained Infertility?

Couples diagnosed with unexplained infertility still have options to explore:

Infertility Treatments: Assisted reproductive technologies such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) can improve the chances of conception by bypassing potential barriers.

Lifestyle Modifications: Adopting a healthier lifestyle through balanced nutrition, regular exercise, and stress management can positively impact fertility.

Alternative Therapies: Some couples turn to acupuncture, herbal supplements, or mind-body practices like yoga to enhance their fertility journey.

If you are suffering from such a condition, consult Dr. Ruchi Tandon, a good infertility specialist in Greater Kailash.

A Quick Guide to In-Vitro Fertilization

A Quick Guide to In-Vitro Fertilization

Infertility can be a heartbreaking journey for couples longing to have a child. However, thanks to medical advancements, In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) has emerged as a beacon of hope, offering a ray of light to those struggling with conception.

IVF has revolutionized the field of reproductive medicine, allowing couples to achieve their dream of parenthood. If you want to know about the procedure in detail, an infertility specialist in Greater Kailash can help. In this blog, we will have a quick look at IVF to get you acquainted with the procedure better.


Understanding IVF

In Vitro Fertilization is a complex assisted reproductive technology that involves combining an egg and sperm outside the body in a laboratory setting. During IVF, the doctor gives certain fertility medicines to the patient. These medicines stimulate ovaries to produce mature eggs which are later retrieved surgically for in-vitro fertilization.

Meanwhile, sperm from the male partner or a donor is collected and prepared for fertilization. In the laboratory, eggs and sperm are combined, and fertilization takes place. The resulting embryos are closely monitored, and one or more are transferred into the woman’s uterus, with any remaining embryos frozen for future use.


Success Rates and Advancements

Over the years, IVF success rates have improved significantly due to advancements in laboratory techniques, better embryo selection methods, and the use of preimplantation genetic testing. Factors such as the woman’s age, the quality of eggs and sperm, and the expertise of the fertility clinic can influence success rates. Today, IVF offers hope to couples facing various fertility challenges, including issues such as tubal factor infertility, male factor infertility, advanced maternal age, endometriosis, and unexplained infertility.

Moreover, innovative techniques like intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and blastocyst culture have further enhanced the chances of success in specific cases.


Emotional Aspects and Support

Couples often experience a rollercoaster of emotions, ranging from hope and excitement to disappointment and anxiety. It is essential to acknowledge and address these emotional aspects. Many fertility clinics offer counseling services to provide emotional support, helping couples navigate the emotional ups and downs.

Additionally, connecting with support groups and seeking guidance from infertility communities can offer invaluable comfort, understanding, and advice. IVF is not just a physical process; it’s an emotional and psychological journey that demands compassion, patience, and a strong support system.


Ethical Considerations and Future Possibilities

As IVF continues to transform the lives of countless couples, ethical considerations arise concerning the creation and disposition of embryos, the use of donor gametes, and the potential for genetic manipulation. Society is continually grappling with these complex questions, striving to strike a balance between scientific progress and ethical boundaries.

Furthermore, ongoing research and innovation offer promising possibilities for the future, such as improved embryo selection techniques, advancements in cryopreservation, and advancements in fertility preservation for individuals facing medical treatments that may affect their fertility.

Consult Dr. Ruchi Tandon, the best gynecologist in Greater Kailash for any fertility concerns.

Infertility – Causes, Treatments, and Support Options

Infertility - Causes, Treatments, and Support Options

Infertility is a challenging and emotionally distressing condition that affects many couples worldwide. Defined as the inability to conceive after a year of unprotected intercourse, infertility can arise from various factors. In such cases, the first and foremost thing one needs is to consult an experienced infertility specialist in Greater Kailash. However, advancements in medical science have led to numerous treatment options and support systems for individuals struggling with infertility. Here, we will explore the causes of infertility, available treatment methods, and support options for couples navigating this journey.

Causes of Infertility

Infertility can be caused by several factors that affect either the male or female partner, or sometimes both. Common causes in women include hormonal imbalances, ovulation disorders, structural issues in the reproductive organs, and conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or endometriosis. In men, infertility can be caused by sperm abnormalities, low sperm count, or issues with sperm motility or morphology. Additionally, factors like age, certain medical conditions, lifestyle choices, and environmental factors can contribute to infertility.

What Are the Treatment Options?

The treatment of infertility depends on the underlying cause and may vary for each individual or couple. Some common treatment options include:

Medications: Fertility drugs can help regulate ovulation in women or improve sperm production and quality in men.

Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART): Techniques like in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and intrauterine insemination (IUI) can assist in achieving pregnancy by bypassing certain fertility barriers.

Surgery: Surgical procedures can correct structural abnormalities in the reproductive organs or address conditions like endometriosis or blocked fallopian tubes.

Donor Options: In cases where there are severe fertility issues, options such as donor eggs, sperm, or embryos may be considered.

Support Options

The emotional and psychological impact of infertility can be significant, and it is crucial for couples to seek support during this challenging journey. Here are some support options to consider:

Counseling and Therapy: Mental health professionals specializing in infertility can provide a safe space for couples to express their emotions, navigate the complexities of treatment, and develop coping strategies.

Support Groups: Joining support groups or online forums allows couples to connect with others facing similar challenges, share experiences, gain insights, and receive emotional support.

Alternative Therapies: Techniques such as acupuncture, meditation, and yoga may help reduce stress, enhance relaxation, and support overall well-being during fertility treatment.

Educational Resources: Accessing reliable information through books, websites, and reputable fertility organizations can empower couples with knowledge about infertility, treatment options, and lifestyle changes that may improve fertility.

Infertility can be a difficult journey, but advancements in medical science offer hope for many couples. Understanding the causes of infertility, exploring available treatment options, and seeking appropriate support can provide couples with the necessary tools to navigate this challenging road and increase their chances of achieving their dream of parenthood. If you are looking for an experienced infertility specialist, consult Dr. Ruchi Tandon. She is also a good gynecologist in South Delhi.

What Are the Causes of Infertility?

Infertility could be debilitating and why not? Every couple wants a child and when it is unable to do that, the situation becomes frustrating. Well, there is no need for that as advanced medical technologies are available in the market for the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. In this blog, we will see some of the possible causes of infertility along with its diagnosis. If you are also struggling to conceive, consult an infertility specialist in Greater Kailash.

Before we move ahead, let us have a brief look at infertility.

What is Infertility?

Infertility is a medical condition characterized by the inability of a person or a couple to conceive after one year of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse. It can affect both men and women. There could be many causes of infertility including hormonal imbalances to structural problems. Infertility can be temporary or permanent. The condition can be treated with various medical, surgical, or assisted reproductive techniques.

What Are the Causes of Infertility?

There could be several reasons for infertility in males and females. Let us see:

Female Infertility

Age: As women age, their ovarian reserve and the quality of eggs decrease, leading to reduced fertility.

Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) can affect ovulation and fertility.

Structural problems: Structural problems in the reproductive system, such as blocked fallopian tubes, can prevent sperm and egg from meeting.

Endometriosis: Endometriosis is a condition in which the tissue that normally lines the uterus grows outside of it, which can cause scarring and blockages in the reproductive system.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): PCOS is a hormonal disorder that affects ovulation and can cause irregular periods.

Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, obesity, and poor nutrition can affect fertility.

Autoimmune disorders: Autoimmune disorders can cause the body to attack reproductive organs, leading to infertility.

Genetic factors: Certain genetic mutations can cause infertility or increase the risk of infertility.

Male Infertility

Abnormal sperm production: This can be due to genetic factors, hormonal imbalances, infections, radiation, chemotherapy, or certain medications.

Blockages in the sperm ducts: This can be caused by infections, injury, or prior surgeries.

Varicocele: This is a condition where the veins that drain the testicle become enlarged, leading to reduced sperm quality and quantity.

Erectile dysfunction: This can make it difficult or impossible to achieve or maintain an erection, which can affect fertility.

Retrograde ejaculation: This is the condition when the semen goes into the bladder instead of coming out during ejaculation.

Environmental factors: Exposure to certain chemicals or toxins, such as pesticides, lead, or radiation, can affect sperm production and quality.

Lifestyle factors: Certain lifestyle choices such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, drug use, and obesity, can also affect fertility.

Genetic disorders: Certain genetic conditions, such as Klinefelter syndrome, Y chromosome deletions, or cystic fibrosis, can affect male fertility.

For a consultation, contact Dr. Ruchi Tandon, an infertility specialist in Greater Kailash.

Can Pelvic or uterine adhesions cause infertility?

Pelvic adhesions, sometimes referred to as “scar tissue”, are a common cause of both infertility and pelvic pain.

Pelvic adhesions can occur as a result of a variety of different conditions including endometriosis, pelvic infection, and previous abdominal or pelvic surgery. It is well known that pelvic adhesions develop over 90% of the time following major abdominal surgery. The most common types of surgery that predispose to the development of pelvic adhesions include the removal of uterine fibroids (myomectomy), treatment of endometriosis, removal of ovarian cysts, and the repair of obstructed fallopian tubes.

Many complications can occur as a result of pelvic adhesions. For example, it is thought that adhesions may be a significant factor in as much as 40% of cases of infertility. They are also thought to be responsible for up to 50% of cases of chronic pelvic pain. In addition, adhesions are typically responsible for 50-75% of cases of bowel obstruction. Although more recent data are lacking, the treatment of pelvic adhesions accounted for 3% of all surgical procedures performed in the United States in 1998, as well as 1% of all hospital admissions and 2% of all patients admitted for surgeries around that time.

How do pelvic adhesions occur?

Adhesions typically develop in response to injury, as part of the normal healing process. Immediately following injury, cells that cause healing (inflammatory cells) migrate to the site of the injury. Within seven days following injury, the scaffold for healing or adhesion formation has already developed. As a result, it appears that no new adhesions form more than seven days after an injury. Rather, the character of the adhesion changes, progressing from thin, filmy adhesions to more dense, vascular adhesions. The earlier in this process that adhesions can be removed, the less likely it is that they will recur and cause long-term problems.

Adhesion formation that occurs following surgery can be of two types; de novo adhesion formation or adhesion reformation. De novo adhesion formation means the formation of adhesions at a site that did not have any adhesions affecting it prior to surgery. This would include the formation of adhesions around the uterus following the removal of a fibroid tumor or the formation of adhesions around an ovary following removal of an ovarian cyst.

Adhesion reformation refers to the recurrence of adhesions following a procedure designed to remove pre-existing pelvic adhesions. This difference is important, as the techniques described below may be very effective at preventing de novo adhesion formation, while they appear to be somewhat less effective at preventing adhesion reformation

What types of surgeries can increase my risk of adhesions?

In most cases of adhesions, they form in the majority of women after gynaecologic pelvic surgery. Studies have shown that adhesions formed in 55-100% of patients who had reproductive pelvic surgery, whether open or laparoscopic.

For example:

• myomectomy (surgery to remove fibroids)
• tubal surgery (to remove an ectopic pregnancy)
• surgery on the ovary (to remove cysts)
• surgery for endometriosis
Even surgery to remove adhesions can lead to new adhesions. It can be a vicious cycle.
• Laparoscopic surgery (surgery done through several small incisions using a camera) has been known to cause less adhesion formation than laparotomy (surgery through one larger incision without use of a camera).
• Microsurgery (surgery using a microscope or magnifying glass, and special surgical technique) leads to less tissue damage and has a lower incidence of adhesion development than the traditional approach.
• Diagnostic procedures, which only involve a visual inspection of the organ(s), such as a diagnostic hysteroscopy or diagnostic laparoscopy, rarely lead to adhesions.

How can I reduce my risk of adhesions?

It starts with talking to your doctor and explaining your concerns about adhesions. There are techniques which can be used at the time of surgery to reduce the risk of developing adhesions. In addition to using microsurgery or laparoscopic techniques, prevention of infection is essential.

During surgery, various products are used to inhibit adhesion formation, known as adhesion barriers. These include gauze-like materials placed over the tissue which dissolve to become a gelatinous layer to reduce the incidence of post-operative adhesions. This material is eventually absorbed by the body.

Dr. Ruchi Tandon is a reputed Gynecologist practicing in leading hospitals in South Delhi namely Max and Apollo hospitals with over 14 years of experience in handling all kinds of Gynecological conditions including infertility and high risk Pregnancies.

How to manage endometriosis and endometriotic ovarian cyst

Endometriosis causes chocolate cysts. Endometrial tissue lines the uterus, and endometriosis causes this tissue to grow outside the uterus as well.

Endometrial tissue can attach to the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and nearby organs, such as the bladder. This can cause painful, heavy periods, and it can also damage the organs that it affects.

Doctors divide endometriosis into stages, according to how far the endometrial tissue has spread to other areas of the body. Stages 3 and 4 are the most severe, and they are the most likely to cause endometriomas.
If a person with endometriosis does not receive treatment, it can grow more severe, and chocolate cysts may develop.

Chocolate cysts are sacs containing old blood. They attach to the ovaries and can affect ovarian function. In some cases, chocolate cysts can stop the ovaries from working and so prevent pregnancy.

Doctors do not know what causes endometriosis. Most research suggests that estrogen plays a key role,researchers are unsure why the hormone causes the condition in some people and not others.

Risk factors for endometriosis and chocolate cysts can include:

• Genetics: People with a family history of endometriosis are more likely to get the condition.
• Retrograde menstrual flow: This happens when period blood travels in the reverse direction, going up the fallopian tubes instead of out of the vagina.
• Immune disorders: Certain immune system issues, especially autoimmune disorders, may cause endometriosis.
• Injuries: Damage to the uterus or surrounding structures correlate with an increased risk of endometriosis. These injuries can occur, for example, during cesarean delivery.

Chocolate cysts are noncancerous, fluid-filled cysts that typically form deep within the ovaries. They get their name from their brown, tar-like appearance, looking something like melted chocolate. They’re also called ovarian endometriomas.

The color comes from old menstrual blood and tissue that fills the cavity of the cyst. A chocolate cyst can affect one or both ovaries, and may occur in multiples or singularly.

Chocolate cysts occur in 20 to 40 percent of women who have endometriosis, estimates the Endometriosis Foundation of America.

Endometriosis is a common disorder in which the lining of the uterus, known as the endometrium, grows outside the uterus and onto the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and other areas of the reproductive tract. The overgrowth of this lining causes severe pain and sometimes infertility.

Chocolate cysts are a subgroup of endometriosis. They’re often associated with more severe forms of the disorder.

What are the symptoms?

Chocolate cysts may cause symptoms in some women. Other women may not experience any symptoms.

The size of the cyst also doesn’t necessarily affect the severity or presence of symptoms. This means a woman with a small cyst may experience symptoms, while someone with a large one may not. Cysts can range from 2 to 20 centimeters (cm) in size.

When symptoms do occur, they’re similar to those of endometriosis. They can include:
• painful, crampy periods
• pelvic pain not related to your menstrual cycle
• irregular periods
• pain during sex
• infertility for some women

If a chocolate cyst ruptures, it can cause severe, sudden abdominal pain on the side of the body where the cyst is located. A ruptured cyst can be a medical emergency. Seek immediate medical attention if you suspect you have a ruptured cyst.

How are chocolate cysts diagnosed?

Your doctor may order a pelvic ultrasound if:

• they feel a cyst during a pelvic exam
• they suspect you have endometriosis based on your symptoms
• you’re experiencing unexplained infertility

An ultrasound can identify if a cyst is present. But it can’t necessarily determine what type of cyst it is.

To definitively diagnose a chocolate cyst, your doctor will extract fluid and debris from inside the cyst. This is usually done with a needle biopsy.
During a needle biopsy, your Gynecologist will use ultrasound to help them insert a needle through the vagina into the ovarian cyst. The extracted fluid is then examined under a microscope. Your Gynecologist can diagnose the type of cyst using the results from the needle biopsy.

Dr. Ruchi Tandon is a Gynecologist practicing in leading hospitals in South Delhi, namely Max and Apollo hospitals, she has over 13 years experience in handling endometriosis and all kinds of ovarian cysts.